1996Section I: Structure and Vocabulary
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)
1. Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often ________, or better than an actual performance.
[A] as good as
[B] as good
[D] good as
2. My pain ________ apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: ??Are you feeling all right???
[A] must be
[C] must have been
[D] had to be
3. The senior librarian at the circulation desk promised to get the book for me ________ she could remember who last borrowed it.
[A] ever since
[B] much as
[C] even though
[D] if only
4. Observations were made ________ the children at the beginning and at the end of pre-school and first grade.
5. The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each ________ one major point in contrast with the other.
[C] is to make
6. A safety analysis ________ the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.
[A] would identify
[B] will identify
[C] would have identified
[D] will have identified
7. The number of registered participants in this year??s marathon was half ________.
[A] of last year??s
[B] those of last year??s
[C] of those of last year
[D] that of last year??s
8. For there ________ successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.
[B] to be
[C] will be
9. There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently ________ what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.
[C] to give
10. No one would have time to read or listen to an account of everything ________ going on in the world.
[A] it is
[B] as is
[C] there is
[D] what is
Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)
11. I??d rather you would go [A] by train, because I can??t bear [B] the idea of your being [C] in an airplane in such [D] bad weather.
12. It??s essential that people be [A] psychological [B] able to resist the impact brought about [C] by the transition form planned [D] economy to market economy.
13. Some bosses dislike to allow [A] people to share [B] their responsibilities; they keep all [C] important matters tightly [D] in their own hands.
14. Each cigarette which a person smokes does [A] some [B] harm, and eventually you [C] may get a serious disease from its [D] effect.
15. On the whole [A], ambitious students are much likely [B] to succeed in their studies than are those [C] with [D] little ambition.
16. Despite [A] much research, there are still certain elements in [B] the life cycle of the insect that is [C]not fully understood [D].
17. In 1921 Einstein won the Nobel Prize, and was honored [A] in Germany until the rise [B] of Nazism then [C] he was driven from [D] Germany because he was a Jew.
18. The data received [A] from the two spacecrafts [B] whirling around Mars indicate [C] that there is much evidence that huge thunderstorms are occurring [D] about the equator of the planet.
19. Generally speaking, the bird flying across [A] our path is observed, and the one [B] staying on the tree near at hand [C] is passed by without any notice taking [D] of it.
20. Mercury??s velocity is so much [A] greater than the Earth??s [B] that it completes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time that [C] takes the Earth to complete one [D].
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)
21. I was speaking to Ann on the phone when suddenly we were ________.
[A] hung up
[B] hung back
[C] cut down
[D] cut off
22. She wondered if she could have the opportunity to spend ________ here so that she could learn more about the city.
[B] some time
[D] some times
23. Ms. Green has been living in town for only one year, yet she seems to be ________ with everyone who comes to the store.
24. He does not ________ as a teacher of English as his pronunciation is terrible.
25. Dozens of scientific groups all over the world have been ________ the goal of a practical and economic way to use sunlight to split water molecules.
26. The discussion was so prolonged and exhausting that ________ the speakers stopped for refreshments.
[A] at large
[B] at intervals
[C] at ease
[D] at random
27. When travelling, you are advised to take travellers?? checks, which provide a secure ________ to carrying your money in cash.
28. I never trusted him because I always thought of him as such a ________ character.
29. Changing from solid to liquid, water takes in heat from all substances near it, and this ________ produces artificial cold surrounding it.
30. I didn??t say anything like that at all. You are purposely ________ my ideas to prove your point.
31. Language, culture, and personality may be considered ________ of each other in thought, but they are inseparable in fact.
32. Watching me pulling the calf awkwardly to the barn, the Irish milkmaid fought hard to ________ her laughter.
[A] hold back
[B] hold on
[C] hold out
[D] hold up
33. The manager gave one of the salesgirls an accusing look for her ________ attitude toward customers.
34. I ________ with thanks the help of my colleagues in the preparation of this new column.
35. It is strictly ________ that access to confidential documents is denied to all but a few.
36. The pollution question as well as several other issues is going to be discussed when the Congress is in ________ again next spring.
37. Christmas is a Christian holy day usually celebrated on December 25th ________ the birth of Jesus Christ.
[A] in accordance with
[B] in terms of
[C] in favor of
[D] in honor of
38. Since it is too late to change my mind now, I am ________ to carrying out the plan.
39. It was a bold idea to build a power station in the deep valley, but it ________ as well as we had hoped.
[A] came off
[B] went off
[C] brought out
[D] made out
40. To survive in the intense trade competition between countries, we must ________ the qualities and varieties of products we make to the world-market demand.
Section II: Close Test
For each numbered blank in following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)
Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man.
They do not provide energy, __41__ do they construct or build any part of the body. They are needed for __42__ foods into energy and body maintenance. There are thirteen or more of them, and if __43__ is missing a deficiency disease becomes __44__.
Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements -- usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and __45__ nitrogen. They are different __46__ their elements are arranged differently, and each vitamin __47__ one or more specific functions in the body.
__48__ enough vitamins is essential to life, although the body has no nutritional use for __49__ vitamins. Many people, __50__, believe in being on the ??safe side?? and thus take extra vitamins. However, a well-balanced diet will usually meet all the body??s vitamin needs.
41. [A] either
42. [A] shifting
43. [A] any
44. [A] serious
45. [A] mostly
46. [A] in that
[B] so that
[C] such that
[D] except that
47. [A] undertakes
48. [A] Supplying
49. [A] exceptional
50. [A] nevertheless
Section III: Reading Comprehension
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)
Tight-lipped elders used to say, ??It??s not what you want in this world, but what you get.??
Psychology teaches that you do get what you want if you know what you want and want the right things.
You can make a mental blueprint of a desire as you would make a blueprint of a house, and each of us is continually making these blueprints in the general routine of everyday living. If we intend to have friends to dinner, we plan the menu, make a shopping list, decide which food to cook first, and such planning is an essential for any type of meal to be served.
Likewise, if you want to find a job, take a sheet of paper, and write a brief account of yourself. In making a blueprint for a job, begin with yourself, for when you know exactly what you have to offer, you can intelligently plan where to sell your services.
This account of yourself is actually a sketch of your working life and should include education, experience and references. Such an account is valuable. It can be referred to in filling out standard application blanks and is extremely helpful in personal interviews. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your ??wares?? and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.
When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something tangible to sell. Then you are ready to hunt for a job. Get all the possible information about your could-be job. Make inquiries as to the details regarding the job and the firm. Keep your eyes and ears open, and use your own judgment. Spend a certain amount of time each day seeking the employment you wish for, and keep in mind: Securing a job is your job now.
51. What do the elders mean when they say, ??It??s not what you want in this world, but what you get.???
[A] You??ll certainly get what you want.
[B] It??s no use dreaming.
[C] You should be dissatisfied with what you have.
[D] It??s essential to set a goal for yourself.
52. [A] blueprint made before inviting a friend to dinner is used in this passage as ________.
[A] an illustration of how to write an application for a job
[B] an indication of how to secure a good job
[C] a guideline for job description
[D] a principle for job evaluation
53. According to the passage, one must write an account of himself before starting to find a job because ________.
[A] that is the first step to please the employer
[B] that is the requirement of the employer
[C] it enables him to know when to sell his services
[D] it forces him to become clearly aware of himself
54. When you have carefully prepared a blueprint of your abilities and desires, you have something ________.
[A] definite to offer
[B] imaginary to provide
[C] practical to supply
[D] desirable to present
With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation??s news coverage, as well as listen to it. And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio station. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children??s programmes and films for an annual license fee of 83 pounds per household.
It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years -- yet the BBC??s future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.
The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC -- including ordinary listeners and viewers -- to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC??s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.
Defenders of the Corporation -- of whom there are many -- are fond of quoting the American slogan ??If it ain??t broke, don??t fix it.?? The BBC ??ain??t broke,?? they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word ??broke??, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?
Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels -- TV and Channel 4 -- were required by the Thatcher Government??s Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels -- funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers?? subscriptions -- which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.
55. The world famous BBC now faces ________.
[A] the problem of new coverage
[B] an uncertain prospect
[C] inquiries by the general public
[D] shrinkage of audience
56. In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is NOT mentioned as the key issue?
[A] Extension of its TV service to Far East.
[B] Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.
[C] Potentials for further international co-operations.
[D] Its existence as a broadcasting organization.
57. The BBC??s ??royal charter?? (Line 4, Paragraph 3) stands for ________.
[A] the financial support from the royal family
[B] the privileges granted by the Queen
[C] a contract with the Queen
[D] a unique relationship with the royal family
58. The foremost reason why the BBC has to readjust itself is no other than ________.
[A] the emergence of commercial TV channels
[B] the enforcement of Broadcasting Act by the government
[C] the urgent necessity to reduce costs and jobs
[D] the challenge of new satellite channels
In the last half of the nineteenth century ??capital?? and ??labour?? were enlarging and perfecting their rival organizations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting, trams and other services to the taxpayers.
The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world??s movement towards industrialization. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large ??comfortable?? classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders?? meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand ??shareholding?? meant leisure and freedom which was used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilization.
The ??shareholders?? as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organization of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other??s strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.
59. It??s true of the old family firms that ________.
[A] they were spoiled by the younger generations
[B] they failed for lack of individual initiative
[C] they lacked efficiency compared with modern companies
[D] they could supply adequate services to the taxpayers
60. The growth of limited liability companies resulted in ________.
[A] the separation of capital from management
[B] the ownership of capital by managers
[C] the emergence of capital and labour as two classes
[D] the participation of shareholders in municipal business
61. According to the passage, all of the following are true except that ________.
[A] the shareholders were unaware of the needs of the workers
[B] the old firm owners hand a better understanding of their workers
[C] the limited liability companies were too large to run smoothly
[D] the trade unions seemed to play a positive role
62. The author is most critical of ________.
[A] family film owners
What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early America -- breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?
Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country??s excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, ??spatial?? thinking about things technological.
Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.
Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, ??With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman.??
A further stimulus to invention came from the ??premium?? system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives.
In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.
Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, ??A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process... The designer and the inventor... are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist.??
This nonverbal ??spatial?? thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. Robert Fulton once wrote, ??The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea.??
When all these shaping forces -- schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking -- interacted with one another on the rich U.S. mainland, they produced that American characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.
63. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to ________.
[A] elementary schools
[B] enthusiastic workers
[C] the attractive premium system
[D] a special way of thinking
64. It is implied that adaptiveness and inventiveness of the early American mechanics ________.
[A] benefited a lot from their mathematical knowledge
[B] shed light on disciplined school management
[C] was brought about by privileged home training
[D] owed a lot to the technological development
65. A technologist can be compared to an artist because ________.
[A] they are both winners of awards
[B] they are both experts in spatial thinking
[C] they both abandon verbal description
[D] they both use various instruments
66. The best title for this passage might be ________.
[A] Inventive Mind
[B] Effective Schooling
[B] Ways of Thinking
[D] Outpouring of Inventions
Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher??s pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. ??Scientific?? creationism, which is being pushed by some for ??equal time?? in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of nonfundamentalist religious leaders have come to regard ??scientific?? creationism as bad science and bad religion.
The first four chapters of Kitcher??s book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior.
Kitcher is a philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The non-specialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: ??This book stands for reason itself.?? And so it does -- and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
67. ??Creationism?? in the passage refers to ________.
[A] evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe
[B] a notion of the creation of religion
[C] the scientific explanation of the earth formation
[D] the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe
68. Kitcher??s book is intended to ________.
[A] recommend the views of the evolutionists
[B] expose the true features of creationists
[C] curse bitterly at this opponents
[D] launch a surprise attack on creationists
69. From the passage we can infer that ________.
[A] reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate
[B] creationists do not base their argument on reasoning
[C] evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists
[D] creationism is supported by scientific findings
70. This passage appears to be a digest of ________.
[A] a book review
[B] a scientific paper
[C] a magazine feature
[D] a newspaper editorial
Section IV: English-Chinese Translation
Read the following passage carefully and then translate underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes. 71) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. Some, however, are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconception of the form scientific theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas. This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a frightening trend. 72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. It can be predicted, however, that from time to time questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers. It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order. 73) This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
This kind of support, like all government support, requires decisions about the appropriate recipients of funds. Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straightforward. But decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult. The goal of the supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting ??good?? as opposed to ??bad?? science, but a valid determination is difficult to make. Generally, the idea of good science tends to become confused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory. 74) However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world??s more fascinating and delightful aspects. 75) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.
Section V: Writing
[A] Title: GOOD HEALTH
[B] Time limit: 40 minutes
[C] Word limit: 120-150 words (not including the given opening sentence)
[D] Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence: ??The desire for good health is universal.??
[E] Your composition should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
1. Importance of good health
2. Ways to keep fit
3. My own practices
Section I: Structure and Vocabulary (20 points)
Part A (5 points)
1. [A] 2. [C] 3. [D] 4. [B] 5. [D]
6. [C] 7. [D] 8. [B] 9. [A] 10. [C]
Part B (5 points)
11. [A] went 12. [B] psychologically
13. [A] allowing 14. [C] he
15. [B] are more likely 16. [C] are
17. [C] when 18. [B] two spacecraft
19. [D] taken 20. [C] it
Part C (10 points)
21. [D] 22. [B] 23. [D] 24. [C] 25. [A]
26. [B] 27. [D] 28. [B] 29. [A] 30. [C]
31. [D] 32. [A] 33. [C] 34. [D] 35. [C]
36. [B] 37. [D] 38. [B] 39. [A] 40. [D]
Section II: Cloze Test (10 points)
41. [C] 42. [D] 43. [A] 44. [B] 45. [C]
46. [A] 47. [D] 48. [B] 49. [C] 50. [A]
Section III: Reading Comprehension (40 points)
51. [B] 52. [A] 53. [D] 54. [A] 55. [B]
56. [C] 57. [C] 58. [D] 59. [C] 60. [A]
61. [C] 62. [D] 63. [D] 64. [A] 65. [B]
66. [A] 67. [D] 68. [B] 69. [B] 70. [A]
Section IV: English-Chinese Translation (15 points)
Section V: Writing (15 points)
Wherever you are and whatever you do, staying healthy is always important. With the improvement of our living standards, people are attaching more and more importance to their health. We students can??t keep the high study efficiency without good health. The same thing is true with workers, scientists and doctors.
In my opinion, good diet and exercises are two major ways to keep healthy. The food we eat every day must be rational and should include meat, vegetables, eggs, and fruit. It is important to drink water every day and not to get addicted to drinking coffee or some other soft drinks. Exercising every day is also essential for us to stay healthy. We can ride bicycles, play tennis or swim. Of course we don??t need to exhaust ourselves. We should plan our physical exercises according to our actual condition. An hour a day is enough.
As a university student, I have much free time to do exercises. I usually play badminton and tennis. But sometimes I am lazy and do not exercise for all kinds of excuses, such as cold weather and exams. I must correct it. I am also careful with my diet. In a way, keeping healthy is not very hard, if you just take it seriously.